SBA Loans Explained - The 7(a) Loan
If you obtain an SBA loan - specifically a 7(a) loan, you can use the loan proceeds to help finance a great variety of business expenses.
The adequacy of an SBA OIC must begin with an evaluation of the assets of the obligor(s). The starting point is ordinarily the net present value of the forced sale value of such assets (not the loan balance). This value combined with the prognosis of the obligors’ earning power form the basis for determining the adequacy of the offer. The review must balance the right of the Government to collect the amount owed and the obligation to treat all obligors with dignity and fairness.
If the principal debtor used his/her primary residence as security for a loan to fund the small business, there are available loan modifications.
If as part of your SBA loan, you pledged your primary residence as collateral, neither Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy will likely help in the event of default. However, Chapter 11 Subchapter V may help.
For instance, a small business debtor's plan may modify the rights of a holder of a claim secured by the principal residence of the debtor if the new value received in connection with the granting of the security interest was:
Therefore, you could possibly use the Chapter 11 Subchapter V to save your house and modify the terms of repaying the loan if you pledged your house as collateral as part of your personal guarantee. You will, more than likely, not rid yourself of the lien. Preserving your home constitutes your goal with the new bankruptcy code. If you have no other options, you should explore the new bankruptcy option.
Most SBA loans fall under two categories: 7(a) and 504.In an SBA 7(a) transaction, a loan is secured from a private sector lender and, provided that the lender and borrower have satisfied the requirements of the SBA, if the borrower defaults on the loan, the SBA will reimburse the lender for a percentage on the loan loss (usually 75% or 85%, depending on various factors).In an SBA 504 transaction, typically, a loan is secured from a private sector lender with a first position lien covering up to 50% of the project cost, and a second loan is secured from a private sector lender with a junior lien position covering up to 40% of the project cost, and the borrower makes a contribution of equity equal to at least 10% of the project cost. After the closing of the first and second loans, and provided that the lender and borrower have complied with the requirements of the SBA, a debenture is sold to investors, the proceeds of which pays off the second loan, whereupon the second loan is assigned to a Certified Development Company (“CDC”) and then to the SBA, which provides a 100% guarantee of the debenture.The existence of the SBA’s guarantee in each of these transactions is an inducement for the lender to make a loan on terms it would otherwise not make. However, the SBA guarantee does not allow the lender to disregard standard commercial underwriting principles such as collateral and personal guarantees. The SBA guarantee does allow the lender to loan more money, extend longer terms, and approve loans to less mature businesses than it otherwise would.The SBA’s purpose under these financing programs is to help businesses gain more access to capital, thereby creating jobs and expanding the tax base. Pursuant to the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (“2010 Act”), the maximum SBA guarantee to the lender on a 7(a) loan was increased to $5,000,000; and on a 504 Loan, the maximum debenture amount was increased to $5,000,000.
The new Chapter 11 Subchapter V bankruptcy has many differences from a regular Chapter 11. For instance, some of the changes are as follows:
These changes will result in faster and thus less expensive reorganizations for small business.
Chapter 11 of the US bankruptcy code focuses on “reorganizing” a business. This allows it to stay alive while restructuring debt and making a plan to repay creditors over time.
For many struggling businesses, the Chapter 11 Subchapter V is a long-awaited life preserver. A traditional Chapter 11 was extremely expensive for businesses. Businesses hope it eliminates some of the bureaucratic pitfalls of The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA).
The BAPCPA was supposed to make filing for Chapter 11 easier. Instead, it included more reporting requirements and other burdens that bogged down the act and canceled out the benefits.
Subchapter V shares some similarities to the BAPCPA. Both have one-step confirmation, and both add new features that make filing for Chapter 11 easier for small businesses.